在英文语境之下,每每读到对抽象概念的精确的具象化描述的尝试总让令我折服,让我觉得抽象的概念其实原来也并不是那么无厘头的嘛。纽约 Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 2019 年夏季新展 Artistic License: Six Takes on the Guggenheim Collection 上一段介绍性文字将战后艺术(postwar art)描述为「一套因战后暴戾与破坏而生的实验性艺术语言」的文字仿佛直击这一类艺术作品的存在目的。

The term postwar art has most typically been used to describe art created in the aftermath of World War II within a North American or Western European context. The advent of the atomic age – initiated by the United States’ bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945-and the atrocities of the Holocaust, perpetuated by Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich, challenged artists and intellectuals to invent new languages and forms that could respond to the un-representable. The disjunction between Western ideologies and the realities of violence and devastation led many European and North American artists to embrace non-Western aesthetics and modes of thought.

In the visual arts, abstraction provided an experimental vocabulary with which to signify the magnitude of destruction caused by the war and the gravity of horrors unleashed by the nuclear bomb. It also offered artists an openended approach to envisioning other psychic or emotional states, as a respite and refuge from the harsh realities of the present. Simultaneously, figuration and performance art flourished, as artists sought to portray the radical fragmentation of the body-a result of the violence wrought against it and the environment, the cityscape, and the countryside. Art offered both a critique of and an escape from a war-weary world.

并不是因为创作于 1950–1970 它们才叫做战后艺术。







在《滚石》(Rolling Stone)杂志的编辑笔下,电视节目正变得越来越像是当代的音乐文化,每一个粉丝群体,在变得越发分裂和孤立。《滚石》2019 年 4 月刊 Editor’s Letter: Goodbye to ‘Game of Thrones’

Game of Thrones had a global reach like nothing before it on TV. When you factor in illegal downloads and streams, the previous season was viewed by at least a billion people — meaning one of seven humans on the planet. “It does things you never expected TV to be able to do in terms of dragons flying and burning up entire armies, and zombies storming down a mountain,” says Alan Sepinwall, our chief TV critic, who has never missed an episode. “It’s viscerally thrilling in a way that almost nothing in TV has ever been before.”

When Game of Thrones debuted, back in 2011, TV was a totally different place. Netflix, Hulu and Amazon hadn’t begun to create their own programming, and the audience for great shows wasn’t splintered across niche genres and formats. It was actually possible (and enjoyable!) to keep up with GoT and other great shows like Homeland, Breaking Bad and Mad Men as they unfolded week to week. Now, dozens of original shows, docs and miniseries are dumped onto streaming services every month, and even the best of them reach smaller, fragmented audiences.

“TV is like the new music, and more than a little tribal,” says Rolling Stone entertainment editor Maria Fontoura. “Everyone has their favorite shows, and people judge each other’s taste by what they’re watching.”

李如一笔下的 Apple News+ 也在让杂志变得越来越像是音乐。《一天世界》博客 Apple News+

苹果最落后的地方是反复讲各种「最好」和「最有创意」。汇集最好的杂志,找最好的创意人来做最好的电视节目。她们没有收到风,最好的时代已经结束了。没有最好,也没有更好,只有各种各样的好。不仅没有最好,甚至最火都已经没有了。已经不再是 for the rest of us 的苹果不懂这个。


Bangumi 番组计划网友 Jadeity 2018 年 12 月 20 日在~技术宅真可怕~小组的讨论中发表了题为「自动炖汤机」的帖子:


Nature 杂志 2018 年 11 月 29 日新刊 Steiner 等发表一种化学合成的描述性语言来控制自动化的化学合成过程 Organic synthesis in a modular robotic system driven by a chemical programming language 并冠以「Chemputer」之名:

The synthesis of complex organic compounds is largely a manual process that is often incompletely documented. To address these shortcomings, we developed an abstraction that maps commonly reported methodological instructions into discrete steps amenable to automation.

2018 年末,用机器代替人手这件事,还是一种迷人的浪漫。



今天读 Donald Preziosi 的《艺术史的艺术:批评读本》(The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology)的时候看到编者 1998 年撰写的开篇文章 Art History: Making the Visible Legible 中提到

Art history and museology traditionally fabricated histories of form as surrogates for or parallels to histories of persons or peoples: narrative stagings which served (on the model of forensic laboratory science) to illustrate, demonstrate, and delineate significant aspects of the character, level of civilization, or degree of social or cognitive advancement or decline of an individual or nation.





Robert BringhurstPalatino: The Natural History of a Typeface 第 96 页中准备结束对凸版letterpress)时代的叙述,并开启后续章节对照排photographic)与数字(或桌面)印刷时代的介绍:

Every font in the Palatino family produced through 1962 was three dimensional, intended for use in a letterpress. Every font in the family made after that date was photographic or digital — and was, in either case, designed for a printed page that has no sculptural dimension.










在最新一集《吹响!悠风号》(第 2 季 第 3 集 烦恼的夜曲)的结尾处,黄前久美子与高坂丽奈之间有这样一段对话(摘录自优酷版本的翻译):





I Love Typography 昨天的新文章 The Prints and the Pauper 的摘录了来自 Keith Houston 的新书《The Book: A Cover-to-Cover Exploration of the Most Powerful Object of Our Time》章节 The Prints and the Pauper: Johannes Gutenberg and the invention of movable type, 比较了中西世界中的印刷术的差异,用西方视角重新审视了我们在中学课本里沈括老先生《梦溪笔谈 · 卷十八 技艺》里的的《活版》选段,给人一种耳目一新的感觉。


But as enticing as Chinese ink was to calligraphers and doctors, it was a stumbling block for Chinese printers who tried to move beyond simple woodblock printing. Water-based inks did not adhere well to metal, earthenware, or porcelain and produced blotchy, indistinct images.

Another famed Chinese invention bound up with books and bookmaking also proved to be an obstacle to the wider adoption of movable type. Chinese paper was too delicate to withstand the pressure required to form a crisp impression, requiring that printers use handheld brushes rather than firm mechanical presses to impress their paper onto their type. Not only that, China’s water-based ink tended to seep through the paper and made it impossible to print on both sides of a sheet.

在这两段里 Keith Houston 指出了两个我们在《活版》的教学过程中通常不被提及的我国传统活版印刷与现当代印刷术的有趣差异:

  • 油墨的不同:中国的水性墨与金属、陶瓷难易结合,导致印刷不清晰。
  • 纸张的不同:中国传统的宣纸薄而脆,韧性差,难易使用机器快速压制;而且由于采用水性墨会洇到背面导致双面印刷困难。



可能因为距今太久,早期文化史上留下的几乎都是一个个独立的名字,而要说他们之间的交流,似乎就应当是效率很低的信件为主。我们也就当然地认为,早期的进步只需要一个个独立个体推动,而晚近的进步则是需要越来越多的人协作。然而,最近在读到《詹森艺术史》(Janson’s History of Art)中谈及构建位于 Assisi 的 Basilica of San Francesco 的部分时提到,工匠们绘制壁画的过程中实际上是一起工作,相互竞争,相互影响的:

Since many painters worked in the same space, they competed with and influenced each other, thus affecting the future direction of Italian art.