The term postwar art has most typically been used to describe art created in the aftermath of World War II within a North American or Western European context. The advent of the atomic age – initiated by the United States’ bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945-and the atrocities of the Holocaust, perpetuated by Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich, challenged artists and intellectuals to invent new languages and forms that could respond to the un-representable. The disjunction between Western ideologies and the realities of violence and devastation led many European and North American artists to embrace non-Western aesthetics and modes of thought.
In the visual arts, abstraction provided an experimental vocabulary with which to signify the magnitude of destruction caused by the war and the gravity of horrors unleashed by the nuclear bomb. It also offered artists an openended approach to envisioning other psychic or emotional states, as a respite and refuge from the harsh realities of the present. Simultaneously, figuration and performance art flourished, as artists sought to portray the radical fragmentation of the body-a result of the violence wrought against it and the environment, the cityscape, and the countryside. Art offered both a critique of and an escape from a war-weary world.
在《滚石》（Rolling Stone）杂志的编辑笔下，电视节目正变得越来越像是当代的音乐文化，每一个粉丝群体，在变得越发分裂和孤立。《滚石》2019 年 4 月刊 Editor’s Letter: Goodbye to ‘Game of Thrones’：
Game of Thrones had a global reach like nothing before it on TV. When you factor in illegal downloads and streams, the previous season was viewed by at least a billion people — meaning one of seven humans on the planet. “It does things you never expected TV to be able to do in terms of dragons flying and burning up entire armies, and zombies storming down a mountain,” says Alan Sepinwall, our chief TV critic, who has never missed an episode. “It’s viscerally thrilling in a way that almost nothing in TV has ever been before.”
When Game of Thrones debuted, back in 2011, TV was a totally different place. Netflix, Hulu and Amazon hadn’t begun to create their own programming, and the audience for great shows wasn’t splintered across niche genres and formats. It was actually possible (and enjoyable!) to keep up with GoT and other great shows like Homeland, Breaking Bad and Mad Men as they unfolded week to week. Now, dozens of original shows, docs and miniseries are dumped onto streaming services every month, and even the best of them reach smaller, fragmented audiences.
“TV is like the new music, and more than a little tribal,” says Rolling Stone entertainment editor Maria Fontoura. “Everyone has their favorite shows, and people judge each other’s taste by what they’re watching.”
李如一笔下的 Apple News+ 也在让杂志变得越来越像是音乐。《一天世界》博客 Apple News+：
苹果最落后的地方是反复讲各种「最好」和「最有创意」。汇集最好的杂志，找最好的创意人来做最好的电视节目。她们没有收到风，最好的时代已经结束了。没有最好，也没有更好，只有各种各样的好。不仅没有最好，甚至最火都已经没有了。已经不再是 for the rest of us 的苹果不懂这个。
Art history and museology traditionally fabricated histories of form as surrogates for or parallels to histories of persons or peoples: narrative stagings which served (on the model of forensic laboratory science) to illustrate, demonstrate, and delineate signiﬁcant aspects of the character, level of civilization, or degree of social or cognitive advancement or decline of an individual or nation.
Every font in the Palatino family produced through 1962 was three dimensional, intended for use in a letterpress. Every font in the family made after that date was photographic or digital — and was, in either case, designed for a printed page that has no sculptural dimension.
But as enticing as Chinese ink was to calligraphers and doctors, it was a stumbling block for Chinese printers who tried to move beyond simple woodblock printing. Water-based inks did not adhere well to metal, earthenware, or porcelain and produced blotchy, indistinct images.
Another famed Chinese invention bound up with books and bookmaking also proved to be an obstacle to the wider adoption of movable type. Chinese paper was too delicate to withstand the pressure required to form a crisp impression, requiring that printers use handheld brushes rather than firm mechanical presses to impress their paper onto their type. Not only that, China’s water-based ink tended to seep through the paper and made it impossible to print on both sides of a sheet.
在这两段里 Keith Houston 指出了两个我们在《活版》的教学过程中通常不被提及的我国传统活版印刷与现当代印刷术的有趣差异：